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DEGREES OF COMPARISON

Comparison can be made using the three forms of the adjective.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

Adjective is a word and it qualifies a noun. It gives more information about the noun.

eg. The lion is a strong animal. Rita is a beautiful girl.
Adjectives are of three degrees. (1) Positive (2) Comparative (3) Superlative

The Positive degree denotes the mere existence of quality.


eg. David is a rich man.

The Comparative degree is used to compare two persons or things having the same quality.


eg. Cancel is more dreadful than cholera.

The Superlative degree is used when more than two persons or things are compared. It is singles one from all the rest.


eg. Mount Everest is the highest peak in the world.

Study the following models.

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
Very few boys in the class are as tall as John.John is taller than any other boys in the class.John is the tallest boy in the class.
John is taller than most other boys in the class.John is one of the tallest boy in the class.

Adjective and Adverbs have three degrees, Positive, Comparative and Superlative.

Positive Degree :

The Pasitive Degree is used to denote the mere existence of quality.

The Positive Degree of an adjective in comparison is the adjective in its simple form. It is used to denote the mere existence of some quality of what we speak about. It is used when no comparison is made.

  • It is a tall building.
  • Apple is sweet to taste.

Comparative Degree

The Comparative Degree is used to compare the qualities of two persons or things.

The Comparative Degree denotes the existence of a higher degree of the quality than the positive. It is used when two things (or two sets of things) are compared.

  • This building is taller than any other building.
  • Apple is sweeter than pear.

Superlative Degree

The Superlative Degree denotes the existence of the highest degree of the quality. It is used when more than two things are compared.

  • This is the tallest building.
  • Apple is the sweetest fruit.

The Superlative Degree is used when more than two nouns or things are compared.

  • Johnsy is kind (Positive Degree)
  • Johnsy is kinder than Rosy (Comparative Degree)
  • Johnsy is the kindest of all (Superlative Degree)

List of Degrees of Comparison

MODEL-1:

By adding ‘er’ and ‘est’
POSITIVECOMPARATIVESUPERLATIVE
brightbrighterbrightest
blackblackerblackest
boldbolderboldest
clevercleverercleverest
coldcoldercoldest
fastfasterfastest
greatgreatergreatest
highhigherhighest
kindkinderkindest
longlongerlongest
smallsmallersmallest
strongstrongerstrongest
sweetsweetersweetest
talltallertallest
youngyoungeryoungest

MODEL-2:

By adding ‘r’ and ‘st’
POSITIVECOMPARATIVESUPERLATIVE
bravebraverbravest
finefinerfinest
largelargerlargest
nicenicernicest
noblenoblernoblest
palepalerpalest
simplesimplersimplest
wisewiserwisest
whitewhiterwhitest

MODEL-3:

By deleting the final ‘y’ and adding ‘ier’ and ‘iest’
POSITIVECOMPARATIVESUPERLATIVE
costlycostliercostliest
drydrierdriest
easyeasiereasiest
happyhappierhappiest
heavyheavierheaviest
lazylasierlasiest
mercymerciermerciest
wealthywealthierwealthiest

MODEL-4:

By doubling the final consonats
POSITIVECOMPARATIVESUPERLATIVE
bigbiggerbiggest
dimdimmerdimmest
fatfatterfattest
hothotterhottest
thinthinnerthinnest

MODEL-5:

By using more and most
POSITIVECOMPARATIVESUPERLATIVE
activemore activemost active
attractivemore attractivemost attractive
beautifulmore beautifulmost beautiful
brilliantmore brilliantmost brilliant
carefulmore carefulmost careful
courageousmore courageousmost courageous
cunningmore cunningmost cunning
difficultmore difficultmost difficult
famousmore famousmost famous
faithfulmore faithfulmost faithful
propermore propermost proper
popularmore popularmost popular
splendidmore splendidmost splendid

MODEL-6:

Irregular Comparisons
POSITIVECOMPARATIVESUPERLATIVE
badworseworst
evilworseworst
goodbetterbest
illworseworst
farfartherfarthest
wellbetterbest
latelaterlatest
littlelessleast
muchmoremost
manymoremost
nearnearernearest
oldolderoldest
oldeldereldest

Changes of Degrees of Comparison

Comparison between two things.

Model-1 :

PositiveComparative
Johnsy is as clever as RosyRosy is not clever than Johnsy
Benjamin is atleast as tall as JaneJane is not taller than Benjamin

Model-2 :

ComparativePositive
Lazar is brighter than StalinStalin is not so bright as Lazar

Model-3 : (the + Superlative)

SuperlativeComparativePositive
Akthar is the richest man in KanpurAkthar is richer than any other man in KanpurNo other man in Kanpur is so rich as Akthar

Model-4 : (one of the + Superlative)

SuperlativeComparativePositive
London is one of the biggest city in EnglandLondon is bigger than most other city in EnglandVery few cities in England are so big as London

Model-5 : (Superlative + of all)

SuperlativeComparativePositive
Sheakespear is the greatest of all dramatistsShakespeare is greater than all other dramatistsNo other dramatist is so great as Shakespeare

Model-6 : (By using “Less ... than”)

PositiveComparative
Lazar is as strong as LeninLenin is not less strong than Lazar

Model-7 : (By using “least”)

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
Some boys in our class are at least as intelligent as BenjaminSome boys in our class are not intelligent than BenjaminBenjamin is not the most intelligent boy in our class

 

 

Comparisions and Contrasts

1. When we compare two objects, persons, qualities, degrees etc. tha tare some respects equal, we may use the comparion of equality. This is formed by the use of

as... adjective / adverb... as
eg. Your house is as large as mine.

2. When we compare unquals, we may use the comparative degree of the adjective or adverb with than

eg. His new book is more interesting than his earlier books

3. When the comparison is negative, we use

so... adjective / adverb... as
eg. Your house is not quite so large as mine.

4. In some adverbial clauses of comparison both subject and verb are dropped.

eg. He is more shy than (he is) unsocial.
Some people think more about their rights than (they do) about their duties.

5. In clauses of comparison introduced by than that ‘should’ is used.

eg. I am already to do the work myself rather than that you should have to do it.

6.Comparison and contrast are also expressed by the use of

the...the...with comparatives.
eg. The sooner you start, the sooner you’ll finish.
The more he read, the less he understood.

 

 

Degrees of Comparison More Examples:

I. Here more than two persons or things or places are compared. Matchless comparison comes in this type.

SuperlativeComparativePositive
Iron is the most useful of all metals. Iron is more useful than any other metal. No other metal is so useful as iron.
SuperlativeComparativePositive
Tom is the cleverest of all boys in the class. Tom is cleverer than any other boy in the class. No other boy in the class is so clever as Tom.
SuperlativeComparativePositive
Rain water is the purest water. Rain water is purer than any other water. No other water is so pure as rain water.

II. Here more than two persons or things or places are compared. Generally this type is in plural form.

SuperlativeComparativePositive
Paris is one of the busiest cities in England. Paris is busier than most other cities in England. Very few cities in England are as busy as Paris.
PositiveComparativeSuperlative
Very few animals are as fast as cheetah. Cheetah is faster than most other animals. Cheetah is one of the fastest animals.
SuperlativeComparativePositive
Food ball is one of the most interesting games. Foot ball is more interesting than most other games. Very few games are as interesting as foot ball.

III. Here only two persons or things or places are compared. For this type there is no Superlative form

ComparativePositive
Paris is hotter than England. England is not so hot as Paris.
PositiveComparative
John is as tall as David. David is not taller than John.
ComparativePositive
The Blue Mountain Express runs faster than the Green Express. The Green Express does not run so fast as the Blue Mountain Express.

 

Complete the Sentences:

1. Very few books are read Harry Potter by children.

(a) as much as (b) more than (c) the most
2. Life in the desert is than life in the mountains.

(a) as dreary as (b) the dreariest (c) drearier
3. Honey is medicine.

(a) as good as (b) better than (c) the best
4. School days are than college days.

(a) as enjoyable as (b) more enjoyable (c) the most enjoyable
5. The coconut tree has any other tree.

(a) as much uses as (b) more uses than (c) the most uses of
6. Dogs are as dolphins.

(a) as friendly (b) more friendly (c) the most friendly
7. No other country sells number of cellphones as India after America.

(a) as many (b) more (c) the most
8. Nursing is many other professions.

(a) as noble as (b) nobler than (c) the most noble
9. Very few channels are watched by children the Cartoon Channel.

(a) as much as (b) more than (c) the most
10. Black is the colour.

(a) as dark as (b) darker than (c) darkest
11. Milk is diet.

(a) so good as (b) better than (c) the best
12. Noodles is dish for children and youngsters.

(a) so enjoyable as (b) more enjoyable than (c) the most enjoyable
13. We have not played any match as this.

(a) so bad (b) worse (c) the worst
14. This road is the one in town.

(a) as long as (b) longer than (c) longest

Give the other degrees as stated in the brackets :

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